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In contrast to other tumour types, lung tumours present a high number of genomic alterations – this is a consequence of exposure to carcinogenic substances found in tobacco smoke, which is the main cause of lung cancer. About 10% of lung tumours carry mutations in a gene called ATM. However, there are no drugs available in the clinic to treat ATM mutant lung cancer. With cutting edge high-throughput drug screens that analyse how the genetic makeup of the patient affects their response to drugs, the team of Sebastian Nijman, CeMM Adjunct PI and Group Leader at the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research in Oxford made a surprising discovery: Cancer cells with ATM mutations are sensitive for drugs that inhibit an enzyme called MEK. The study was published in Nature Communications (DOI: 10.1038/NCOMMS13701) MEK is part of a biochemical pathway which is responsible for supporting proliferation and survival of the cell, while ATM plays a central role during the DNA damage response. In ATM deficient lung cancer cells, Nijman’s team found that MEK inhibition results in cells being unable to keep proliferating and leads to apoptosis. An unexpected finding, as MEK inhibitors have so far been approved for the treatment of a type of skin cancer but not for lung cancer. “Normally lung cancer cells are resistant to MEK inhibition as they activate compensatory signals,” Ferran Fece, one of the two first authors on the study and former PhD student at CeMM, explains. “In contrast, ATM mutant cells fail to do this and subsequently cannot cope with the blocking of MEK and die. We call this type of unexpected drug sensitivity synthetic lethality”. Michal Smida, the other shared first author on the article and former PostDoc at CeMM, adds: “We knew that cancer mutations can lead to extreme sensitivity to some drugs.

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Peter Macdiarmid/Getty Images The Supreme Court has weighed in on a patent battle between Samsung and Apple, siding with Samsung by declaring that the patent infringement for an element of a design should be treated differently from the infringement of an entire design. Samsung previously had been ordered to pay Apple $399 million in damages. The high court’s unanimous decision sends the suit back to a lower court to reconsider what is a reasonable amount. Here’s how NPR’s Nina Totenberg and An-Li Herring explained the underlying issue a few months ago : “The two smartphone giants have been battling each other not just in the marketplace but also in the courts since 2011, a year after Samsung unveiled a new set of smartphones, including the Galaxy. Like iPhones, the Samsung products, for the first time, had rounded corners and square icons on a touchscreen. “Apple alleged, in part, that its South Korean rival had infringed three design patents for discrete components of the iPhone the front face of the device, the rounded edges framing the face, and the device’s distinctive matrix of colorful square icons. “In 2012, a jury ruled in Apple’s favor and Samsung was ordered to pay $399 million in damages all the profits it had made on 11 infringing phone models. read this post here“Samsung appealed, arguing that it should not have to fork over its total profits; rather, it should only be liable for the specific design elements it infringed. “The Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, which specializes in patent law, rejected that argument, agreeing with Apple that Samsung had to cough up all of its profits on an infringed ‘article of manufacture.’ ” ‘The game then becomes, what’s the article of manufacture?’ says Daryl Joseffer, who formerly served as principal deputy U.S. solicitor general.

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Neuralgia: A disorder of the nervous system which results in acute pain along the affected nerve’s pathway. This is due to hormonal activity. Creamy white lesions on the lining of the mouth. Note: Consult with your doctor before using any form of medication on your baby. These lesions may also appear on the tongue, the roof of the mouth, gums, tonsils, and inner cheeks Absence of the sense of taste accompanied with a cottony feeling in the mouth Bleeding when the lesions are scratched Cracked skin at the corners of the lips accompanied with redness When an infant has this infection, it is likely to be passed to the mother during breast feeding. In case of positive urinalysis results, further tests and urine culture are conducted for presence of gram negative, rod shaped bacteria. It is caused due to missing, crooked, or crowded teeth, a misalignment of the jaw, or extra teeth. interview coursesSome of the symptoms of this condition are headache, pain in the neck, nausea, drowsiness, and fever.


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